Minyak Sirih / Piper Betle Oil

100% PURE & NATURAL

ESSENTIAL OIL

Manfaat Minyak daun sirih :

Mematikan kuman, antioksi dan tinggi, anti jamur.

Menghilangkan bau badan.

Bersifat menahan perdarahan, menyembuhkan luka pada kulit.

Bersifat mengerutkan, mengeluarkan dahak, meluruhkan ludah.

Menghentikan perdarahan ( hemostatik)

Meredakan asma.

Meredakan sakit punggung dan otot tegang.

Meningkatkan kesehatan mulut.

Mengurangi asam lambung.

Meredakan sembelit.

Menurunkan kolesterol.

Menghilangkan jerawat.


Health Benefits Of Betel Leaf Oil

Health Benefits Of Betel Leaf OilAre you stressed with lots of common health conditions and not able to do much about it? Then most likely betel leaf oil is the greatest solution for you. Among the earliest known herbs, the betel leaf, features a royal patronage within the cultural heritage of India, Nepal and several other South East Asian countries. Botanically referred to as Piper betel, this particular plant is a member of the pepper family Piperaceae. The heart shaped betel leaf has numerous health advantages.

 

The betel leaf is most widely used in India. It is utilized for all sorts of occasions as well as events since it comes with an excellent connotation. Gnawing Betel leaves along with araca nut have been a historical tradition which is still common throughout India.

The Betel Leaf essential oil has became popular in the past few years. The therapeutic benefits of the betel leaf can be found within the oil too. Steam distillation is probably the most typical ways of oil extraction from betel leaf. The young leaf provides the maximum yield. The colour of the extracted oil varies from yellow to bright brown. The oil smells quite sharp as well as tastes nasty.

Health Benefits Of Betel Leaf Oil

These are also known as the golden green of India. Betel leaf is probably the oldest plant leaves which have a noble as well as traditional significance. Its numerous advantages have discovered their place in the Ayurveda and also this leaf is commonly chewed by individuals in India. The oil is obtained from the betel leaves through the procedure for steam distillation and is also put to a variety of health and medicinal uses. This particular oil features a powerful bitter taste as well as aroma and is also noted for its stimulant, carminative, anti-fungal, anti-bacterial as well as digestive qualities.

The Various Uses And Benefits Of Betel Leaf Oil Are:

1. Reduces Inflammation

This particular oil has got healing as well as curative qualities, is abundant with vitamin C and could be utilized to decrease all sorts of pain as well as inflammations just like a back pain, headaches, as well as joint pains within the body.

2. Aids Digestion

Betel leaf oil has got digestive as well as carminative qualities to heal and safeguard the intestinal as well as stomach functions. Massage the abdomen using a combination of 2 drops of betel leaf oil, 2 drops of peppermint oil and 2 ml sesame oil. This can supply the stomach relief from acidity, heartburn, along with other stomach problems.

3. Treats Loss Of Appetite

This oil could be massaged on the stomach and, in addition, be inhaled to encourage the gasses and juices within the stomach for digestion as well as treat constipation. Appetite is therefore restored as well as worms within the stomach just like hookworms and tapeworms, which could diminish appetite, may also be efficiently treated by using this oil.

4. Respiratory Disorders

Betel leaf oil is incredibly effective against a cough, cold, congestion, and bronchial problems. Whilst doing steam inhalation, 2 drops of betel leaf oil could be included with the inhalation to accelerate the effects of the vapors. Mix mustard oil to betel leaf oil as well as massage within the chest to relieve the congestion. Because of its expectorant qualities, the phlegm loosens up and also the chest feels lighter. The nose and throat may also be massaged with this particular oil mix to get rest from throat as well as nasal troubles.

5. Refreshes Breath

After a heavy meal this is a common practice to chew betel leaves in India. The oil too has got similar qualities and may help refresh the breath after heavy meals or on consuming garlic or food items using a strong odor. Gargling ought to be done using a cup of warm water in which 2 drops of betel leaf oil have been included. The anti-bacterial qualities of betel will certainly banish all bacteria and germs from the mouth as well as restore fresh breathe.

6. Gum Problems

Tooth decay, swollen as well as bleeding gums all can be handled utilizing betel leaf oil. Gargling along with warm water in which few drops of betel leaf oil are added might help to fight against germs and prevent the building of plaque. Betel leaf oil has got powerful qualities that avoid the development of bacteria that cause dental troubles as well as tooth decay.

7. Vocal Chord Troubles

Singers frequently gargle using a concoction of warm water as well as betel leaf oil to soothe their throats and reduce the inflammation within the larynx restore the voice.

8. Skin Infections

This particular oil has got anti-bacterial, anti-fungal as well as antiseptic properties to fight germs and infections. Skin allergies and infections like athlete’s foot, ringworms and common ailments like pimples may be treatable by making use of betel leaf oil. Add 2 drops of betel leaf oil, 2 drops of peppermint oil, 1 drop turmeric oil, to 2 ml of coconut oil and apply this combination to the affected area to deal with wounds, infections as well as microbe allergies on the skin.

9. Arthritis And Joints Pains

The analgesic as well as numbing qualities of betel leaf oil assist in minimizing the body as well as joint pains. For individuals struggling with arthritis as well as muscle spasms, a nice betel oil massage is effective.Massage the affected area along with 2 drops betel leaf oil in 1.5 ml of coconut oil. 4-5 drops of betel leaf oil could be included with the cold or hot compress to obtain instant relief.

10. Refresh The Mind And Body

To deal with lethargy or muscle and body spasms, massage the body along with betel leaf oil, included with a base oil, or add few drops of it on the bath water to help ease as well as calm tensed as well as tired muscles. Also, its anti-microbial qualities works well for keeping germs away and its cooling nature relaxes the mind.

11. Reproductive Problems

The reproductive ailments both in men and women may be treatable utilizing betel leaf oil, because of its aphrodisiac properties.

12. Diabetes

Even patients of diabetes may benefit immensely through betel leaf oil, because of its anti-diabetic properties.

13. Rheumatic Conditions And Pain

The betel leaf oil assists offer relief in cases of rheumatic pains and conditions. The numbing, analgesic property of the oil offers rest from various signs of the problem.

14. Relief From Back Pain And Muscular Tensions

Massaging the lower back with betel leaf oil along with a carrier oil helps you to ease the pain. Additionally, it offers rest from muscular tensions, redness, and swelling. It may also help treat headaches.

15. Stops Earache

If you suffer from from earaches, then betel leaf oil is a great treatment. Mix betel leaf oil and coconut oil and put two drops in the ear. You’ll find relief soon.

disadur : https://www.healthbenefitstimes.com/health-benefits-of-betel-leaf-oil/


Primal Protector: Piper Betel Leaf Extends Aromatic, Antibacterial and UV Benefits

 Contact Author Renuka Thergaonkar, Ph.D., R&D Global Consultants Pvt Ltd., Mumbai; Saiprasad Walawalkar, Walawalkar & Associates, Palghar

Editor’s note: The cosmetics industry has utilized natural extracts for decades, in some instances because they impart antimicrobial benefits—and are more appealing on product labels than traditional preserva­tives. There is also heightened interest in replacing both synthetic flavors and fragrances with natural essential oils and extracts. Add to these new concerns over COVID-19, which have multiplied the demand for natural oils and extracts having antibacterial properties, and the relevance of the present article to current product development becomes self-evident.

Piper betel is a climbing vine belonging to the family Piperaceae that is abundantly grown and distributed in many Asian countries. More popularly known as Paan leaves in India and Barui leaves in Bangladesh, Piper betel leaves are cultivated following traditional Indian methods on approximately 55,000 hectares of land with an annual production worth nearly Rs 9,000 million (approx. US $119 million).1

The leaves of this botanical contain high quantities of moisture, protein, fats, minerals, vitamins, phytoche­micals and antioxidants.2-4, 13 Piper betel leaves have been used in traditional medicine as carminative, stimulant, antiseptic, antifungal and antibacterial agents. They also have been utilized to treat diseases caused by bacteria and fungi; for example, halitosis, boils, abscesses, conjunct­ivitis, constipation, headaches and many other ailments.2-4

Considering the myriad of uses for Piper betel leaves, several leaf oil samples were derived and characterized as described herein for potential cosmetic applications. Following is a brief background of the plant and overview of its active constituents; taste and aroma characte­rizations of the sample oils; comparisons in the oils as a function of age, climate and leaf parts; as well as exploratory tests for antibacterial and UV filtering effects.

Plant Characte­ristics

There are 34 varieties of Piper betel leaves found in India and they are most commonly used for food. Betel leaves from different regions vary in smell and taste as well as essential oil content. In fact, the oil content of various Indian leaf types, such as Kalipatti, Ramtek, Bangla, etc., can range from 0.7% to 2.6%—and the most important factor determining the aromatic value of the leaf is the amount and nature of its essential oil.3, 10

Kalipatti is a variety grown in the Maharashtra region. It has thick and dark leaves, a pungent scent and is wilt-resistant. This aromatic creeper has heart-shaped, smooth, long-stalked leaves with a pointed apex. They grow from 5-20 cm in length and characte­ristically are broadly ovate, slightly cordate, shiny on both sides and often unequal at the base with a glabrous, yellowish or bright green appearance.​3

A betel leaf plant has a life span of about five to six years.10 During its growth cycle, at approx. Day 15, the leaves at the 3rd or 4th node down from the plant’s apex are tender and considered ideal for plucking for oil extraction or edible uses. Once the plant reaches a length of 7 ft to 8 ft (approx. 2 m to 2.4 m), the lower portion of the creeper is coiled and tied at the bottom to a support stick, close to the soil, thus lowering the creeper to a height of 2 ft (approx. 0.6 m) from the soil. Adventitious roots also arise from the nodes, which provide the plant with a new rooting system.4, 11

The chemical constituents of Piper betel leaf have previously been described12 and include: piperol-A, piperol-B, methyl piper betlol and essential oil composed primarily of terpinen-4-ol, safrole, allyl pyrocatechol monoacetate, eugenol and other components. The leaf is also rich in antioxidants; polyphenols such as eugenol, chavicol, carvacrol, chavibetol, catechol, allylpyr­ocatechol; and vitamin C. Thanks to this variety of constituents, Piper betel leaf oil exhibits many potential cosmetic applications, hence its present evaluation for aromatic, antibacterial and UV-protective benefits.5, 13

Materials and Methods

Kalipatti variety Piper betel leaf oils were first obtained by hydro-distillation, then tested for organoleptic properties, physicoc­hemical constituents, antibacterial potential and UV absorbance.

Leaf oil: Fresh leaves, having matured between 15 to 17 days, were used to extract essential oil samples. Leaves were first cleaned using water, then air-dried, followed by water distillation at 60°C.6, 10 Essential oil yields for 500 g of leaves with and without a petiole, i.e., the stalk joining the plant’s leaf to its stem, were compared. The average yield obtained from leaves with petioles (0.5 g) was higher than for those without petioles (0.3 g).

Test methods: Briefly, odor profiles were assessed by a panel of 10 trained experts who observed, by the magnitude estimation method, changes as a function of age, climate and leaf parts. Gas chromato­graphya was used to evaluate the chemical composition of the oils.7 Antimicrobial activity was assessed using the E test and agar diffusion platesb, and UV protection, by a spectrop­hotometerc.8, 9

Organoleptic Properties and Chemical Constituents

As outlined in Table 1, the leaf oils generally demonstrated a pungent and sharp taste, as observed by the 10 panelists, Table 2 additionally shows their physical properties, as determined by refractive index and other standard assessments; notably the oils are soluble in ethanol and organic solvents. The odor profiles of the extracted oils were further compared by the magnitude estimation method. The oils were segregated based on their month of production, the season of harvest and morphological part used for extraction (see Table 3). These samples were then compared by the 10 trained experts to observe the effects of the morphological parts extracted, climate and aging on the odor profiles of the oils.

Morphological parts: The oils obtained from only Piper betel leaves had green, spicy, sparkling, woody and cool notes. The oil obtained from leaves with their petioles exhibited the same notes but also a distinct vegetative note (see Table 4).

Climatic conditions: The odor profile of betel leaf oils obtained during monsoon season had a less prominent vegetative undertone and more “clean” and spicy notes than the other samples. Furthermore, vegetative and woody notes increased with decreasing moisture, which is observed with the progression of dry weather (see Table 5).

Odor change with age: The age of the oils also changed the odor profile. Oils aged eight months demonstrated prominent spicy notes, distinctly on the lines of citrus, and less herbaceous notes. Vegetative aspects were prominent in fresh, one-day aged oil, which decreased with age, as did the harshness of this characte­ristic. Also in one-day aged oil, the burnt note was prominent and this decreased with age (seeTable 6).

Hence, the oils appeared to develop higher quality and clearer notes with age. The yield of the oils increased with the petiole parts, rather the leaves-only, and the oil obtained during the rainy season exhibited better notes, compared with other seasons.

Chemical constituents: Finally, gas chromato­graphya revealed the chemical constituents of the petiole-plus-leaf oil derived during monsoon season, which interestingly included 27.66% safrole. In general, results were in agreement with previous reports (see Table 7).

Antimicrobial Properties

As noted, Piper betel leaf oil from the Kalipatti variety also was evaluated for antimicrobial properties for the skin.

The same petiole-plus-leaf derived during monsoon (0.5%) oil itself was tested, as was its application in a test cream formula (see Formula 1). Antimicrobial activity was determined against Gram-positive (S. aureus) and Gram-negative (E. coli) bacteria using the E test with agar platesb and the pour plate method.

Oil efficacy: The bacterial culture was spread over two different media plates and paper strips containing betel leaf oil (or not) were placed over the culture and allowed to diffuse. All plates were kept under observation for 48 hr in an incubator at 37°C. Figures 1 and 2show how betel leaf oil staved off E. coli and S. aureus growth, respectively.

Oil in test cream efficacy: The oil was next incorporated or not (control) at different levels into a simple o/w emulsion base (see Formula 1) and evaluated again for antimicrobial properties. The emulsions were evaluated by the pour plate method and again, the samples where tested against E. coli and S. aureus (see Figures 3 and 4). The Piper betel leaf oil test formulas acted effectively against both bacteria, although the 3% oil showed better results against Gram-positive bacteria than against Gram-negative bacteria.

UV Absorption

Finally, the same Piper betel petiole-and-leaf oil obtained during monsoon was examined for its potential to absorb UV. While no previous literature reported this benefit, the spectrop­hotometric test results were promising and prompted further SPF testing.

First, a 10-μL oil sample was mixed with 990 μL of chloroform as a diluent and analyzed by spectrop­hotometerc. The oil demonstrated high UV absorption in the complete UVB region (250-290 nm), although no activity was observed in UVA or UVC wavelengths (see Figure 5). The highest absorbance was noted at 4.2 nm, suggesting Piper betel leaf oil affords UV-B protection properties.

Next, the same test cream bases prepared earlier (see Formula 1) were evaluated for SPF using an ultraviolet transmittance analyzerd (see Figure 5). The values obtained were between SPF 4.​62 and 4.​8 at a 3% Piper betel leaf oil concentr­ation, and between 2.​3 and 2.​49 for a 1.​5% concentr­ation. The control cream devoid of Piper betel leaf oil exhibited an SPF of 2.​76; none of the test creams achieved any Boots star rating (see Table 8).

Discussion and Conclusions

Kalipatti variety Piper betel leaf oil was obtained by hydro-distillation. The oil yield maximum was 0.​5 g with both the leaves and petioles. Gas chromato­graphy revealed the chemical constituents of the oil, which interestingly included 27.​66% safrole.

The general odor profile of the oil was distinctly green, spicy, cool and woody; although odor comparisons of oil derived from the leaves and petioles revealed green, vegetative, pungent, spicy, woody and cool notes; whereas oil from the leaves only demonstrated similar green, spicy, woody and cool notes, but also citrus and “sparkling” characte­ristics.

Evaluations based on climatic conditions during the plant’s growth showed that vegetative and woody notes increased with a decrease in moisture in the oil, which is seen with the progression of dry weather. Another evaluation explored the effects of aging and showed oil aged eight months had prominently spicy notes, distinctly on the lines of citrus and less herbaceous.

An antimicrobial test showed that 0.​5% Piper betel leaf oil at ~1.​5% and 3% concentr­ations had an inhibitory effect against E. coli and S. aureus strains of bacteria. When incorporated in a cream base, the oil also demonstrated antibacterial properties. Finally, the oil imparted an average SPF of 4.​69 at a 3% concentration but had a moderate UVA/​UVB ratio at a 1.​5% concentr­ation. Notably, the role of safrole, which is present at high levels in this extract, is under investig­ation. It affects the aroma of the oil and could, potentially, influence the SPF.

Taken together, it can be concluded that Piper betel leaf oil of the Kalipatti variety affords benefits with potential application in personal care products; e.g., as an antibacterial active. It is recommended for mixing with other essential oils to create a blend that works as a natural antimicrobial for hand rubs, body washes, shampoos and the like.

References

  1. Chauhan, E.​S., Aishwarya, J., Singh, A. and Tiwari, A. A review: Nutraceu­ticals properties of Piper betel (Paan). Ameri J of Phytomed and Clin Thera. ISSN 2321-2748.
  2. Dwivedi, V. and Tripathi, S. (2014). Review study on potential activity of Piper betel. J of Pharma and Phyto. 3(4) 93-98.
  3. The Wealth of India–Raw Material Series (1969). Volume VII, CSIR/ NSCIR publication.
  4. Guha, P. (2006). Betel leaf: The neglected green gold of India. J Hum Ecol 19(2) 87-93.
  5. Kokate, C.K., Purohit, A.P. and Gokhale, S.B. (2008, Mar 10). Pharmacognosy.
  6. Durrans, T.H. (1922). The distillation of essential oils. Distillation Principles and Processes. Macmillan and Co.
  7. Datta, A., Ghoshdas­tidar, S. and Singh, M. (2011). Antimicrobial property of Piper betel leaf against clinical isolates of bacteria. Intl J Pharma Sci Res. 2(3) 104-109.
  8. Caburian, A.​B. and Osi, M.​O. (2011). Characte­rization and evaluation of antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from the leaves of Piper betel L. Intl J Current Pharma Res. ISSN- 0975-7066, vol 3(2).
  9. Caburian, A.​B. and Osi, M.​O. (2010). Characte­rization and evaluation of antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from the leaves of Piper betel L. Intern Sci Res J. ISSN: 2094-1749, vol 2(1).
  10. Handa, S.S. and Kaul, M.K. (1996). Supplement to cultivation and utilization of aromatic plants. Regional research laboratory, Council of Scientific & Industrial Research.
  11. Pin, K.​Y., et al. (2006). Aqueous extraction of hydroxyc­havicol from Piper betel L. leaves. E-Intl Sci Res J. ISSN: 2094-1749, vol 2(1).
  12. Bajpai, V., Sharma, D., Kumar, B. and Madhusudanan, K.P. (2010, Dec). Profiling of Piper betel Linn. cultivars by direct analysis in real time mass spectrometric technique. Biomed Chromatogr. 24(12) 1283-1286.
  13. Majumdar, B., Chaudhuri, S.R. and Roy, A. (2003, Apr). Effect of ethanol extract of leaf of Piper betel Linn. leaf on healing of NSAID-induced experimental ulcer—A novel role of free radical scavenging action. Indian J Exp Biol. 41(4) 311-315.

Captions/​Footnotes:

a Trace GC Ultra 2.​0 Gas Chromato­graph, ThermoFisher

b E test or Epsilometer test, bioMérieux

c Genesys 10S UV-VIS Spectrop­hotometer, Applied Biosystem

d UV-2000S Ultraviolet Transmittance Analyzer, Labsphere Inc.

Disadur : https://www.cosmeticsandtoiletries.com/research/chemistry/Primal-Protector-Piper-Betel-Leaf-Extends-Aromatic-Antibacterial-and-UV-Benefits-571508161.html


 


Manfaat Daun Sirih untuk Kesehatan Mulut hingga Anti-Kanker Daun sirih.

FOTO/IStockphoto Oleh: Yandri Daniel Damaledo – 26 Juni 2019 Dibaca Normal 1 menit

Kandungan yang terdapat dalam daun sirih dipercaya bisa mencegah dan mengobati berbagai macam penyakit, mulai dari menunrunkan kolesterol hingga sebagai antikanker. tirto.id – Daun sirih sangat umum digunakan dalam kehidupan sehari-hari. Daun ini berbentuk hati dan berwarna hijau tua yang berasal dari keluarga tanaman Piperaceae. Masyarakat di India menggunakan daun sirih untuk berbagai keperluan, termasuk dalam ritual acara adat, keagamaan dan pernikahan. Dalam pengobatan tradisional Cina, daun sirih digunakan untuk berbagai pengobatan karena diakui memiliki sifat detoksifikasi, antioksida dan antimutasi. US National Library of Medicine National Institute of Health menuliskan, pada beberapa percobaan penelitian ekstrak daun sirih, ditemukan senyawa yang berperan dalam kebersihan mulut serta mengandung unsur anti-diabetes, kardiovaskular, anti-inflamasi, imunomodulator, anti maag, hepato pelindung, anti infeksi dan unsur lainnya, Selain itu, ekstrak daun sirih juga diberikan untuk beberapa kegiatan biologis seperti antiinflamasi, antikanker, dan imunomodulator atau yang terkait dengan ekstrak daun dan senyawa yang dimurnikan.

Berikut adalah beberapa manfaat kesehatan dari daun sirih, melansir dari Lybrate.com.

1. Diabetes Daun sirih dapat mengurangi kadar glukosa secara keseluruhan dalam darah Anda dan baik untuk penderita diabetes tipe 2 serta yang sering mengalami stres oksidatif. Hal ini dapat menyebabkan menipisnya kandungan antioksida dalam tubuh, sehingga terjadi penumpukan secara mendasar dan bebas.

2. Rendah kolesterol Kandungan eugenol yang terdapat dalam daun sirih dapat membantu menurunkan kadar kolesterol. Selain itu, eugenol juga menghambat jumlah kolesterol yang dihasilkan di hati dan mengurangi jumlah lipid yang diserap oleh usus.

3. Antikanker Daun sirih memiliki senyawa fenolik di dalamnya yang mengandung berbagai sifat seperti antibakteri, anti mutagenik, antioksidan, dan antiproliferasi. Selain itu mengandung phytochemical yang tinggi sehingga membantu melawan kanker. Daun sirih juga membantu melawan stres oksidatif, yang menjadi faktor penting dalam mencegah kanker.

4. Antimikroba Minyak atsiri alami yang terkandung dalam daun sirih memiliki sifat antibakteri, yang dapat membantu melawan infeksi. Selain itu, fenolik dan fitokimia dapat berpengaruh terhadap bakteri gram positif dan gram negatif.

5. Membantu menyembuhkan luka Ekstrak daun sirih memiliki efek yang sangat kuat dalam menyembuhkan luka. Hal ini disebabkan oleh kandungan antioksidan di dalamnya.Daun sirih dapat menyembuhkan luka bakar dengan efektif.

6. Mencegah Asma Kandungan anti inflamasi dapat membantu penyembuhan penyakit asma. Asma biasanya dipicu oleh histhamin yang disebabkan bronkiokonstriksi.

7. Membantu menghilangkan stres Mengunyah daun sirih dipercaya dapat meredakan stres atau depresi, karena dapat merangsang pusat saraf sehingga membantu memulihkan suasana hati menjadi lebih baik. Daun sirih juga membantu menghasilkan senyawa fenolik aromatik yang mampu merangsang jumlah katekolamin dalam sistem tubuh, hal ini juga secara langsung terkait dengan penurunan depresi.

8. Menyegarkan mulut Daun sirih dipercaya bisa mengatasi berbagai persoalan mulut, seperti menyegarkan mulut, menghilangkan bau mulut dan mencegah berbagai infeksi. Tidak hanya itu, daun sirih juga dapat melindungi rongga mulut Anda dari keries gigi dan mengurangi jumlah asam yang dihasilkan oleh bakteri.

9. Melindungi lambung Fitokimia yang terkandung dalam sirih memiliki unsur antioksidan dan anti tukak untuk kesehatan lambung. Radang lambung dapat menyebabkan kerusakan lapisan perut, penurunan produksi lendir lambung. Antioksidan dalam daun sirih dapat menyembuhkan infeksi luka. Dilansir dari Indiatoday, daun sirih mengandung banyak nutrisi.

Pada 100 gram daun sirih terdapat 1,3 mikrogram yodium, 1,1-4,6 mikrogaram kalium, 1,9-2,9 mikrogram vitamin A, 13-0 mikrogram vitamin B-1. Selain itu mengandung 1,9-30 mikrogram vitamin B-2 dan 0,63-0,89 mikrogram asam nikotinat. Semua nutrisi ini baik untuk kesehatan.

Baca selengkapnya di artikel “Manfaat Daun Sirih untuk Kesehatan Mulut hingga Anti-Kanker”, https://tirto.id/ec7K


 

Note : Selalu Ready Stock

Order grosir/eceran  :

  Tlp : +6236944047

 


Product Type: